The second million-strong demonstration to demand the regime's resignation takes place in Tahrir Square on what revolutionaries dub the 'Friday of Departure'. In an unprecedented scene, Muslim worshippers perform their Friday prayers protected by Christians and nonreligious fellow demonstrators. Rachid Mohamed Rachid, Minister of Foreign Trade and Industry, is banned from leaving the country. Prime Minister Ahmed Shafik rules out the possibility of Mubarak stepping down or handing over to his vice-president Omar Suliman, and claims that it is crucial for both security and legislative reasons that the President remain in office. Obama calls upon Mubarak to "do the right thing".
Despite the closure of mobile phone networks and the internet to prevent the organisation of protests, hundreds of thousands of people flood out of mosques after prayers on the 'Friday of Rage' and head for Tahrir Square. The same happens in Alexandria, Suez, Mansoura, lsmailia, Damietta, Fayoum, Damanhur, Zagazig, Port Said and North Sinai. Over 800 people are martyred and over a thousand more injured across the country. Alexandria is hardest hit, with 87 dead, followed by Suez, with 13. Having failed to deter protesters, the police withdraw from Qasr Al-Nil bridge in Cairo. Demonstrators gain control of Alexandria and Suez and burn local National Democratic Party headquarters and police stations until Hosni Mubarak, in his role as military commander, announces a curfew in Cairo, Alexandria and Suez from 6 pm until 7 am. Tanks roll into the streets to maintain security and are welcomed by protesters who see the army as neutral. The slogan 'The army and the people are one' appears for the first time. Shortly after midnight, Mubarak delivers a speech to the Egyptian people in which he dismisses the government, seemingly unaware that he himself is the target of the revolutionaries' anger.
Demonstrations continue around Egypt. Labour protests are on the rise. Thousands blockade the governorate building in Kafr Al-Sheikh, whilst oil refinery workers go on strike demanding the resignation of Petroleum Minister Sameh Fahmy. The Ministry of Manpower is set alight, and uncontracted Red Cross workers in Ramses, Cairo, block a main street to protest the administration's refusal to regularise their status after twenty years of work. The strikers are joined by workers from workshops in Bulaq and Korn Abu Radi, the Cairo Drinking Water and Sanitation Company, Cairo Cleaning and Beautification Agency and the Egyptian Postal Service. Journalists at the Press Syndicate plan a vote of no confidence in Syndicate Chief Makram Mohamed Ahmed, who is close to the regime. Tensions come to a head and Ahmed is thrown out of the union's offices. At AI-Ahram Newspaper, young journalists publish the first edition of the supplement 'Tahrir Youth' in defiance of the editorial board's anti-revolutionary stance. Tens die at the hands of the authorities at Qata Prison. There is joy and dancing in the streets until the morning. Sexual harassment returns to Tahrir Square.
On the 'Friday of Departure', thousands march to the Ministry of Defense demanding an end to military rule. Loud military music is played to drown out the revolutionaries' chants. The Military Council warns of conspiracies to bring down the state, and dispatch forces throughout the country to suppress any civil disobedience.
Early in the morning, heavy sniper fire from the direction of Abdel Moneim Riyad Square kills at least five demonstrators in Tahrir Square, and renewed clashes break out in the surrounding area. Attorney General Abdel Meguid Mahmoud places a travel ban and freezes the bank accounts of Ahmed Ezz of the ruling National Democratic Party, former Interior Minister Habib Al-Adly, former Tourism Minister Zuheir Garana, Housing Minister Ahmad Al-Maghribi, and a number of other regime figures. Four thousands take to the streets in Suez to demand Mubarak's resignation. Fifteen are killed and 150 injured by police forces in Damanhur prison, where prisoners are evacuated and then fired upon as they reach the doors of the prison. Police storms Hisham Mubarak Law Centre, a human rights NGO, and arrests all those present.
Flouting the curfew, demonstrators pour into Tahrir Square in the early hours of the morning to demand Mubarak's resignation, and violent clashes with police take place in front of the Interior Ministry, where three people are martyred and scores more injured. The military intervenes with armoured vehicles and take control of the situation. Mubarak appoints Omar Suleiman, Intelligence Chief and close ally, as his first-ever vice-president, and assigns former Civil Aviation Minister and Commander of the Air Force Ahmed Shafik the task of forming a new government. From Berlin, the German, French and British leaders express their concern at the situation in Egypt, and Britain and the USA advise their citizens to leave. A sense of chaos sweeps the country after the police withdrawal and news of uprisings in the prisons of Abu Zaabal, Tora, Fayoum, and Qata. General Mohammed Al-Batran of the Prison Authority is martyred in Qata, and Habib Al-Adly and his officers are subsequently accused of his murder. Al-Batran is understood to have disobeyed orders to release prisoners - orders by the Interior Minister in a deliberate attempt to cause chaos. Young people form Popular Committees to protect properties and maintain security in the streets. Egyptian television announces extension of the curfew, which will henceforth last from 4 pm until 8 am. Bedouins blow up the local State Security headquarters in Al-Arish, Sinai, killing one person and wounding twelve. Egyptian television announces the resignation of Ahmed Ezz, member of the National Democratic Party's policies secretariat.
Military Spokesperson General Ismail Etman promises that the army will not use force against demonstrators, and vows to protect the right to freedom of expression of all those using peaceful means. The new cabinet, headed by Ahmed Shafik, is sworn in. Omar Suleiman announces that Mubarak has entrusted him with the task of beginning a dialogue with a range of political players on the issue of constitutional and legislative reform.Thousands of demonstrators in Tahrir Square demand the President's resignation. Trains across the country are at a standstill. Complaints about the internet blackout continue, whilst Al-Jazeera announces that it is experiencing an unprecedented level of difficulty in broadcasting.
Tahrir Square overflows with demonstrators calling for Mubarak's resignation in the biggest million-strong protest yet. In his speech, Mubarak asks the people to choose between chaos and stability. He refuses to leave immediately, but promises a peaceful transition of power and declares that he does not intend to stand for another term in office. He asks Parliament to discuss articles 76 and 77 of the Constitution, pledges an inquiry into the causes of the recent security lapse, and declares that he was born and shall die on Egyptian soil. The revolution rejects Mubarak's speech and demands his immediate departure. US special envoy Frank Wisner meets with Mubarak. Google develops a voice-to-tweet service to help Egyptians circumvent internet shutdowns.
Huge numbers of Egyptians respond to calls by the Facebook page 'We are all Khaled Said' to sabotage National Police Day. Demonstrations erupt across Cairo and Giza, heading for Tahrir Square. Protests also take place in Suez, lsmailia, Alexandria, Mansoura, Tanta and Aswan. Interior Minister Habib Al-Adly blames demonstrations on the banned Muslim Brotherhood, who deny responsibility. Mobile phone networks are cut off in the vicinity of Tahrir Square. At six in the evening, demonstrators gather around a fire lit by the Ultras at the entrance to Qasr al-Aini street, united under the slogans, "The people want the fall of the regime" and "Bread, freedom, human dignity". A state of quiet anticipation pervades the square until midnight, when police attack demonstrators with water hoses and tear gas. The protesters disperse into small groups roaming the streets of downtown Cairo, forming demonstrations which move about the city until daybreak. The first martyr of the Egyptian revolution falls in Suez.
Police clashes with thousands of protesters who refuse to leave Tahrir Square, and the Interior Ministry arrests 500 people over the course of two days. Protests continue in Cairo and become fiercer in Suez, where the protesters are joined by Sheikh Hafiz Salama, leader of the popular resistance in Suez during the 1973 October War.
Around 250,000 protestors remain in Tahrir Square. F16 aircraft flies overhead at low altitudes, prompting the chant "Hosni's gone crazy!." EIBaradei, in Tahrir Square, demands that the regime leave and calls for a new Egypt. Calls for Mubarak to step down are growing in number, both within Egypt and abroad, and US statements call upon the Egyptian government to respond to the demands of the people. Egyptians are urged by demonstrators in Tahrir Square to take part in the first million-strong demonstration to topple Mubarak. Israel asks for the global biased rhetoric against Mubarak to be moderated, countering that he has proved himself capable of maintaining peace in the region. The internet is still experiencing shutdowns, and opposition television channels, including Al-Jazeera, are taken off air. Meanwhile, six Al-Jazeera editors are arrested and later released.
Demonstrators prevent the military from opening the Tahrir Mugamma, an important administrative building in the square. The army announces that the curfew is to be reduced to the new hours of 8 pm to 6 am. Wael Ghonim is released along with a number of other prisoners, and later appears on Mona Al-Shazly's talk show '10 pm'. His moving appearance evokes the sympathy and support of many Egyptians. The Public Prosecution Office begins investigating claims of Interior Ministry involvement in the Saints' Church explosion, whilst Habib Al-Adly accuses senior aides of bringing about the police meltdown. Mubarak meets with the new government. In attendance are Vice-President Omar Suliman, Prime Minister Ahmed Shafik, Speaker of the People's Assembly Fathi Sorour, Speaker of the Shura Council Safwat Al-Sherif, and Field Marshal Mohamed Hussein Tantawi, Minister of Defence and Military Production. The Court of Cassation distributes electoral appeals against members of Parliament for quick consideration. President of the Court Serry Siyam says there are 1527 appeals spread over 195 electoral districts.
Crowds gather in Tahrir Square for the ninth consecutive day in response to calls for another million-strong march to reject Mubarak's speech. Pro-Mubarak groups appear for the first time since the outbreak of the revolution in Mustafa Mahmoud Square in Mohandiseen to demand a return to stability and to rouse support for the President following his recent speech. They are joined by a number of artists, media personalities and footballers. Hundreds of regime thugs brandishing swords, canes and bayonets enter Tahrir Square on horseback and camelback to attack the revolutionaries. The army does not intervene. Demonstrators capture the horses and camels, and repel the attackers to the edges of the square, where the two sides pelt each other with rocks in back-and-forth clashes which last until the following morning. The centre of the square is transformed into a field hospital packed with casualties. Later on, Mubarak supporters positioned on the rooftops of buildings surrounding the square hurl molotov cocktails and chunks of cement onto protestors, and the Egyptian Museum building is also damaged. Independent revolutionaries and Salafists fight in the front lines to defend the square with their lives, later joined by the Ultras then Muslim Brotherhood youth. The military, claiming neutrality, refuse to intervene, yet fire into the air to break up demonstrations. Protesters insist the army permitted the armed thugs to enter the square and that the attackers were police in civilian clothing, publishing photos of confiscated police IDs and NDP membership cards on YouTube. Health sources announce eleven dead and 1500 injured in the day's battle, many of whom remain in a critical condition. Subsequent investigations reveal the involvement of senior regime figures, NDP members and businessmen in the day's attacks on the revolutionaries, and the event comes to be known as the 'Battle of the Camel'. Egyptian Foreign Ministry statement rejects US and European calls for immediate political transition.
Huge demonstrations continue in Cairo and other cities. The regime announces the resignation of Gamal Mubarak and Safwat Al-Sherif from the NDP executive committee and the appointment of Hossam Badrawi as Secretary General. Former Interior Minister Habib Al-Adly and three of his aides are placed under house arrest. The Egypt-Jordan gas pipeline is blown up and Israel decides to temporarily halt Egyptian gas imports. A security source in North Sinai claims that foreign elements were involved in planning the explosion. The Ministry of Health announces that eleven people have died since the first day of the revolution; UNESCO says the death toll throughout the country may be as high as 300, whilst Reuters reports that it has counted 150 dead in Cairo, Alexandria and Suez alone. Economists value the Mubarak family's wealth at approximately 70 billion US dollars, most of which is concentrated in British and Swiss bank accounts and property in London, New York and Los Angeles. A number of traditional opposition groups, including the Muslim Brotherhood and various independent figures, attend a national dialogue meeting with vicepresident Omar Suliman in which it is agreed that a committee for constitutional reform is to be formed within months. Suliman also agrees to work towards ending emergency law, to form a national follow-up committee to implement reforms, to lift restrictions on the media and communication, and to pursue those accused of corruption. Revolutionaries reject the dialogue with Suliman. Suliman rejects calls by young revolutionaries for Mubarak to transfer power to his vice-president. Banks reopen after a week's closure. Prayers for the martyrs are performed in Tahrir Square, and Christians perform Sunday mass in the presence of thousands of Muslims.
Demonstrations continue throughout the country as hundreds are arrested, including 20 members of the Muslim Brotherhood and activist Wael Ghonim. Mohamed EIBaradei returns to Cairo to join the protests. The Muslim Brotherhood announce their intention to join the following day's demonstrations, whilst Salafit leader Yassir Al-Burhami states that he will not take part. In the evening, the government shuts down Facebook and Twitter, and then, after midnight, shuts down the internet completely. Meanwhile, security forces in most Egyptian cities prepare for the following day.
The Supreme Constitutional Court announces that it will hear the cases of both the isolation law and the law which governed last year's parliamentary elections on June 14th. Giza Criminal Court acquits 13 policemen of varying ranks of charged with killing protesters on the 28th January 2011. Marches across the country commemorate the death of Khaled Said, who was beaten to death by the police in 2010, sparking mass outrage at state brutality. His hometown Alexandria sees the biggest demonstration.